THE DESCRIPTION OF THE COMPLEX OF PURIFICATION CONSTRUCTIONS WITH APPLICATION OF ELECTRO - IMPULSIVE TECHNOLOGY OF CLEARING THE HOUSEHOLD AND INDUSTRIAL DRAINS WITH RECEPTION OF COMBUSTIBLE GAS

Purpose:
The electro -inpulsive technology is directed on clearing and disinfecting of economic-household and industrial sewage with the greater maintenance of ions of heavy metals and arsenic for:
 - reuse of the purified water;
 - reception of combustible gases for maintenance of power facilities of housing and communal services, mini-thermal power stations (TPS), the enterprises.

Principle of work:
Technological process is ecologically pure and is based:
1. on electrochemical reactions which lead to destruction of molecules of complex organic substances and their transformation into the elementary gaseous combustible substances;
2. on joint action of natural oxidizers (ozone, radicals IT, atomic oxygen, etc.);
3. on ultra-violet radiation, generated in water-emulsified a stream;
4. on electro-coagulation and electro-impulsive cavitations.

Applied devices of purification
The offered electro-impulse technology of processing of water will be realized in a multipurpose reactor (МPR) «Solar pulse», a complex entering into a pilot-industrial variant «Molniya-1» on processing household and industrial drains.
In the work of a water-purifying complex «Molniya-1» with manufacture of combustible gas the following technological processes are used:
1. Mixing of a solution.
2. Ultrasonic emulsification of concentrated (up to 30 %) solution of finely-dispersive emulsion without expensive surfactant substances.
3. Electro-impulsive processing.
4. A water filtration.
5. Decarbonization of combustible gas.
6. Allocation of synthesis-gas.
7. Compression of synthesis-gas.

 

THE STRUCTURE OF DRAIN-PURIFYING SYSTEM

1. The preparatory block.
2. The block of electro-impulse processing
3. The block of turnaround water supply

 

The preparatory block

The Block № 1.
For mixing up the capacities of solutions of which the working solution for preparation of concentrated emulsion is formed by ultrasonic way are stipulated.
Storage, rated holding capacities, capacities for preparation 30 %-s' emulsion by ultrasonic method:
Ultrasonic emulsification enables to prepare for enough concentrated solutions (up to 30 %) finely-dispersive emulsions without use of surface-active substances.
For industrial emulsification ultrasonic fluid jet generators working on sound frequencies are convenient. In a jet of a liquid the plate with a sharp edge is located. When the jet of a liquid hits about a sharp edge, in a jet there is an instability in the form of a wave of indignation which in acoustics is named a wave of "the basic tone ». In a liquid whistle a liquid is submitted to internal area under pressure of 100 atm., and in a jet the speed makes up 50 km/s. Passed through entrance nozzle the liquid gets the form of a thin jet and goes on a sharp edge of a plate, specially fixed in the central part of the jet. Fluctuations are raised in a plate, and at a resonance acoustic energy in a jet sharply increases. All system is adjusted so that resonant frequency of a plate (15-30 Hz) was reached at optimum pressure and speed of a liquid, and also distance between nozzle and the edge of a plate. A vibrating plate is possible to be fixed in the central points, or at one end; as though the console vibrator in the latter case turns out. In the chamber where the plate is established, some jets are transmitted that provides a resonance of a plate so acoustic energy is kept constant and unchangeable. The pump which the liquid submits to the generator, serves as well for circulation of a liquid.
The basic application of the jet generator as the device for emulsifying as in small volume of edge of a vibrating plate greater acoustic energy concentrates and arises cavitations. Such great density of energy causes the small size of formed drops of emulsion. Therefore sound generators appear rather effective. For example, in homogenizators for reception of particles in the size of 1 micron at productivity 5000 l/h is required capacity 40-50 l.s., and in jet generators under the same conditions it is enough 5-7 l.s. In homogenizators the pressure is 500-2000 atm, and in jet generators - 75-100 atm. A design of devices is quite simple. The only element which demands enhanced attention is a vibrating plate. When working in severe constraints it should be replaced in some months. At last, it is necessary to specify, that jet generators can be easily reconstructed on dispergating of solid bodies.
The preparatory block is completed by the pump equipment, pipelines, devices of the control and system of automation.



The lbock of electro-impulse processing

The block № 2. Electro-impulse processing of emulsion is carried out in the electro-discharging block by means of the computerized electronic scheme. The electronic block provides submission of high-voltage discharge impulses in reactor zone.
Electromagnetic impulses are transferred in a working environment by means of special system of electrodes. Frequency impulse transmission can vary depending on properties of environment in a wide range 100Hz – 20kHz with the maximal amplitude up to 30 кV. Thus, in reactor zone is created the highly-activated ionic environment with higher degree of dissociation in comparison with usual electrolyte.
The electro-discharge block makes active processes of oxidation, coagulation, formation of the combustible gas occurring in pre-electrode space due to input of small dosed out portions of energy in a pulse mode for initiation of chain chemical reactions.
Electro-impulse influence allows generating in the gas discharge for processing of water not only long-living ozone, but also short-living atomic oxygen, a radical of OH and a number of other active particles, and also ultra-violet radiation. At such approach it was possible to realize unique technological process – synergetic influence of ultra-violet radiation and the strongest (natural) oxidizers.
Process is sensitive to structure of a working environment and character of external influences. Therefore the reactor is equipped by the special replaceable block of system of electrodes with armor protection.

The block of turnaround water supply

The Block № 3. The block of turnaround water supply is intended for maintenance with turnaround cooling water compressor heat-exchange equipment of the Complex, fire extinguishing systems, technical water supply of consumers, additional charging of systems of a heat supply.

The Block consists of fan-cooling tower, pool of the store, circulating pumps, system of pipelines with the distributing pipeline armature completed by the block of standard mechanical filters with granular loading. Standard pressure head filters of industrial production with traditional loadings are used: albitophyre, pink sand (burnt breed) or shredded quartz. Washing of filters is made by a return current of pure water without use of any reagents.


THE EFFICIENCY OF CLEARING OF DRAINS

    • Thus, the complex will be capable to provide clearing of waters of any complexity and will allow to lead up to maximum concentration limit sewage with the greater maintenance of ions of heavy metals of galvanic manufactures, chemical manufactures, etc.

    DEGREE OF PURIFICATION BY THE ELECTRO-IMPULSE METHOD

    Components

    Concentration

    Before purification

    After purification

    Sanitary Minimum.Maximum concentration limit, no more than

    Turbidity mg/l

    1,5 - 20

    < 1,0

    1,5

    Smell, points

    2 - 10

    no smell

    2

    Taste, points

    more than 2,0

    less than 2,0

    2

    Chromacity, hailstones

    20 - 80

    < 10

    20

    Oxidability permanganated

    5 - 10

    < 3,0

    < 5,0

    PH

    6 - 9

    6 - 9

    6 - 9

    Ferrum, total mg/l

    0,3 - 12
    (and more)

    0,05 - 0,25

    0,3

    Manganese, mg/l

    0,1 - 0,7
    (and more)

    0,05 - 0,1

    0,1

    Cadmium,mg/l

    <0,005

    traces

    0,001

    Lead, mg/l

    0,03 - 0,3

    traces

    0,03

    Molybdenum, mg/l

    0,25 - 0,7

    < 0,1

    0,25

    Copper, mg/l

    1,0 - 2,5

    < 0,01

    1,0

    Phenol, mg/l

    0,01-0,02
    (and more)

    < 0,001

    0,001

    Petrochemicals, mg/l

    more 0,1

    less 0,1

    0,1

    Formaldehyd , mg/l

    0,05 - 0,4

    0,03 - 0,05

    0,05

    Total bacterial count (bacteria per liter)

    500

    < 50

    50

    Thermo tolerant coliform bacteria

     

    in 100 ml absence

    in 100 ml absence

    Genaral coliform bacteria

     

    in 100 ml absence

    in 100 ml absence

    Remaining ozone in RFW(radio frequency waves), mg/l

     

    < 0,3

    0,3

     

    2. The offered technology is reagentless, energy-saving, ecologically pure and economically effective. It is characterized by a diverse spectrum of practical appendices and the solution of special scientific and technical problems.


    Traditional technologies are analytical methods since each step provides performance of strictly limited problem independently.



    Name of pollution

    The appliance suitable for purification of pollution

    1

    Biological oxygen demand in 5 days (BOD-5)

    Bioclearing (3.1), oxidation (3.2), flotation (3.6)

    2

    Chemical oxygen demand(COD)

    Bioclearing , oxidation, flotation

    3

    Suspended matters

    Upholding (3.4), cyclonage (3.5), flotation, filtration (3.8), contact clarification (3.7), reversed osmosis (3.11)

    4

    Nitrites, niterates

    Bioclearing, oxidation, ionic exchange (3.10), ultrafiltration (3.8) ,reversed osmosis, electrodialysis (3.12)

    5

    Ammonnium Nitrogen

    Bioclearing, oxidation, flotation, sorption (3.9), ionic exchange, ultrafiltration, reversed osmosis, electrodialysis

    6

    Phosphates

    Bioclearing, coagulation (3.3), sorption, reversed osmosis, ultrafiltration, electrodialysis

    7

    Petroleum products

    Upholding, flotation, coagulation, contact clarification, sorption

    8

    Iron (Ferrum)

    Flotation, coagulation, contact clarification, sorption

    9

    Mineral structure, chlorides, sulfates

    Reversed osmosis electrodialysis, distillation (3.13), freezing (3.14)

    10

    COLI

    Chlorination, ozonization, ultra-violet irradiation (3.15)

     

    Each clearing element has individual functional features, i.e. its own optimum-admissible sizes of pollution of initial water and limiting parameters of quality of the cleared water.
    Besides, each clearing element has following characteristics: power inputs; applied reagents; expenditure materials; substances, put into cleared water; the wastes formed during clearing; overall dimensions of the equipment; the cost 1m3 of the cleared water.

    1. Multifunctionality of a complex with electro- impulse technology

    In electro-impulse technology of clearing of drains is reached synergetic and synthetic efficiency of processing from the point of view of multifunctionality – multifactorness of processing and disinfecting of water.
    The electro-impulse technology of emulsion processing allows to spend purposeful synthesis of products of reaction and to receive combustible gases in the form of hydrocarbons, or hydrogen, and also other substances which contain in emulsion as components.


    THE MANUFACTURE OF GAS

    The Structure of a technological line on manufacture of gas


    The block of decarbonization
    The block of synthesis-gas exhalation
    The block synthesis-gas compression
    The block of distribution

     

    Purpose of blocks
    From an electro-impulse reactor gas goes to the block decarbonization where there is a removal from a gas stream the steams of water and the basic quantity dioxide of carbon. Removal of СО2 and Н2О is carried out by method of short-cyclic adsorptions.
    The block consists of three adsorbers connected by pipelines with automatically operating pipeline armature and the vacuum pump.
    Adsorbers are filled by a compound layer of batch mixture – fine-pored silicone gel and gas active coal in the ratio 1:3. The service life of sorbents - 5 years.
    From the block of decarbonization gas acts in the block of synthesis-gas exhalation. The Block of synthesis-gas exhalation is intended for exhalation from the gas stream leaving the block of decarbonization of hydrocarbonic mixture (synthesis-gas). Exhalation of synthesis-gas is carried out by method short-cyclic adsorption.
    The block consists of four adsorbers connected by pipelines with automatically operating pipeline armature, buffer capacity and the compressor for the return of wastes and blowing-off gases.
    Adsorbers are filled by gas active coal. Service life of a sorbent - 5 years.
    The block synthesis-gas compression is intended for reception compressed up to 7,0 MPa synthesis-gas. The block consists of the stress-fit gas compressor, two adsorbers connected by pipelines with pipeline armature and the tubular furnace.
    Adsorbers are filled with active recuperation coal.
    Service life of a sorbent - 4 years.
    It is completed by units of regulation of pressure, systems of automation, the sound and light signal system.
    The block of distribution consists of storage and distributive capacities for accumulation and transportation by systems of synthesis-gas pipelines to the consumer.
    It is completed by units of regulation of pressure, systems of automation, the sound and light signal system. The modular variant of configuration of the equipment allows to group with the minimal expenses the complex (complexes) depending on problems and purposes of received products of manufacture and allows to make water purification not only from traditional pollutants (phenol, formaldehyde, mineral oil), but also from salts of heavy metals and other substances (manganese, iron, silicon, lead, cadmium, copper, chrome, nickel, etc.), being in household and industrial drains that follows from their chemical and granulometric structure.

     

    Technological schemes of application of the complex of electro -impulse water purification with reception of synthesis-gas for manufacture of thermal and electric energy

    The SCHEME of the Complex on manufacture of hydrocarbonic fuels on purification constructions

                                                                                                                                      

      

     

    The drains of the primary sedimentation tanks of the purification constructions

     

     

     


    The SCHEME of the Modular Complex on processing of liquid organic chemistry and toxic chemicals with manufacture of hydrocarbonic fuels

     

     

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